Authors: Leah Tilden, MA, AEMT; Sara Walker, MS, EMT-P; Felix Marquez, BA, NRP; Mark Malonzo, EdD(c), Kelly Kohler, BA, NRP; Justin Allen, BA, EMT-P; Tiffany Sliter, BS; Marissa Peterson, MS; Kevin Loughlin, PhD(c); Nancy Hoffmann, MSW

Introduction: The flipped classroom pedagogy is based on students gaining first exposure to new material outside of class followed by the assimilation of that knowledge through in-class activities and discussion. Flipped classrooms are thought to enhance learning through interactive activities among instructors and peers that lead to improved outcomes. Results from a 2018 study found that EMT students have higher cognitive competency in a flipped classroom setting.


Hypothesis: 1. Increasing the amount of flipped classroom pedagogy in an EMT classroom will increase first-time NREMT pass rates. 2. EMT students in a flipped classroom will have higher NREMT first-time pass rates versus hybrid or traditional classrooms.


Methods: Surveys were distributed to approximately sixteen hundred EMS programs across the U.S. who are current Fisdap users.  Each individual program was asked a universal set of questions to determine if their EMT classes utilize a traditional, hybrid, or flipped classroom model. Programs were also asked to share first-time NREMT pass rates for 2017 and 2018.


Results: The survey yielded two hundred and twenty-four responses..  One hundred and seventy eight respondents had complete data and were included in the final data set.  Thirty-two states were represented in the data  Sixty-seven percent of respondents self-identified as non-flipped (hybrid and/or traditional) and thirty three percent identified as flipped.  There was a positive correlation between increased flipped pedagogy in an EMT classroom and first-time EMT class pass rates.  Additionally, EMT students in flipped classrooms had higher NREMT first time pass rates than students in a traditional or hybrid classroom.


Conclusion: While the sample size played an intricate role in determining statistical significance, the study revealed a positive correlation between flipped classrooms and NREMT scores.  From a practical standpoint, this suggests that flipping even one module at a time can be a benefit to students’ cognitive exam scores. In the future, the survey will be sent again to programs in order to achieve a higher response rate and then data re-analyzed.